no longer an exclusively vicarious one.

Monday, January 31, 2005


hi. im robbie buck and you're listening to the tripod song in an hour album.

well you're not and im not, but hi anyways.

uh. this blog was actually meant to go on my other blog on msn spaces, but i decided that it was more than i could do to just keep one blog alive, let alone two. so ive transferred it here. and yes. that means that there is nothing on the msn trichorder. its just a landmark, an empty vessel that marks a special place for, well, me i guess. its crap and so is this, but at least this takes up more time to read. so, here it is. the intro to the wrong blog. enjoy.

well i bet i spelt that wrong.

ola whoever.

tis the trichorder Space (tm) and while youse may all think i am simply trying to own every single space on the net that is called trichorder, i do most humbly assure you that this is not true.

it really isnt. im practically certain that somewhere, out there, a group of geeks have already set up some kind of elaborate website paying homage to that delightfully handy contraption that so handily gave its name to this Space.


i guess, by any definition of the term, i too am a geek. however i am not a trekkie. i suppose i am the more modern, cynical breed. i am a scaper.

yes farscape lives and breathes on. it is the show that never ends.

right. to business.

this Space is a place (im a poet and i dont know...:P) in which i am allowed to go on like i really never would for real. like, as if anyone really talks like this. and if you do... stop it. right now. your new years' resolution for this year is to stop frelling speaking like this because it is not only wrong... it is also inhumane and contributing to the ever-growing rate of pollution and that hole in the ozone layer.

oh and that blog called trichorder on blogger?

its mine.

dont go there. its no longer in commission. i euthanised it. it was just getting too crap.
erm and that other blog called trichorder2 on blogger?

its also mine.

what? i had to name the new place something. its all i could think of. besides its a lovely name
lovely ... *snigger*.... i said lovely....

sorry hang on a sec

*walks out of room and shuts door. a long burst of badly-muffled laughter can be heard echoing through the awkward silence left by the departure of the author*

wooh. i'm okay now.

understand. please. i will hardly ever get to write on this thing, cos my sister has a monopoly (gained and retained only by the threat of physical injury i tell you) and i almost never get access to the net for any significant amount of time.

oh and i guess im in the middle of my HSC year. but im not letting it faze me. i will not have my life (little and pathetic as it is) be ruined or influenced in any way by this farcity (i dont think thats a word but you know what i mean) of an examination that will "determine my future".

hah. i laugh at your earnestness and wishy-washy hallmark-influenced way of looking at life. if i want to become a cat burgler or a professional sniper, I will be the judge of that.

hey. does intelligence screen these blogs? sniper sniper sniper. i guess one of the employment opportunities for a girl these days is to get professional training in... sniper rifling. except my vision is shot. oh well. there's that option out the metaphorical window.

how good were ross and terri during the holidays. i miss them. mel's alrite but she's kinda boring. the radio. you know.

"rebel, rebel, cos you're the new sensation"

good band that. should try to find their album. its quite good, even though a lot of the new breed of punk rock nowadays kinda sets my teeth on edge.

the length of this blog only corresponds to the amount of time that i will NOT be on the computer. because there will be such huge gaps between entries, as i have already anticipated, i have made whatever blogs i CAN do extra extra long. my sis comes back in half an hour anyways.

well i guess thats all for now, folks.

man this computer is fahrbot. soooo slow. dammit.

i just am filled with so much love for all of youse...



sorry. to begin...

i guess i should explain.
you know, about this blog.

erm the old trichorder site is frelled.
a) its yotz-house, and
b) i lost the password and can't be bothered trying to get it back
so, like, don't go there. cos the last thing i want to do is waste your time.... yeah...

so. here i am.
i guess i'm called wakefield. don't ask.. its a long, winding and ultimately embarassing tale of several misguided young teens who were blinded as children by the repetitive and shallow storytelling of one ann m. martin. i told you you didn't want to know. and yes. i am soooo ashamed of myself.
its an alias. and believe me, if you didn't know who i was, it is a very good cover of my real identity.
very, very good.

i guess the aim of the blog is to act as some sort of online repository of my school work as well as a place for random dren. cos if this tralk of a computer i got at home decides to crash on me, and believe me the probability of that happening is way too much for me to deal with right now, i will kill everything in a ten metre radius then cry all the way to school. do you KNOW how long it takes to do some of this stuff. and how short it takes to do others... but i won't go into that.

and yes. there is a trichorder site at msn.
its mine.

i would do something cool with this space except i am basically computer illiterate and i have a smelly sister who basically owns this computer and there is only one with the net on it.
oh and i'm kinda in the middle of my HSC year.

i guess i don't expect anyone else to even take note of this blog's existence, but i will keep talking as if someone were because it helps keep me sane.

aren't jay and the doctor strangely, compellingly funny?

would that i could keep a really cool blog, like with my diary and cool narratives detailing my life and full of exposes of all the current affairs going on in the world.
too bad im a lazy bugger who couldn't be stuffed to put sugar in her tea let alone research and rant over the misfortunes of the universe and the evils of the ever-expanding corporate state.

hey, tea was never meant to be drunk with sugar. its morally hypocritical. believe me.

so thats today.
i guess i'll catchas all whenever...

now how do i get this thing up....


Friday, January 28, 2005

Modern History: WW1: the western front

Notes for Modern History
World War 1 (1914-1921)
The Schlieffen Plan
Reasons for the failure of the German Schlieffen Plan:
- Encountering Belgian resistance
- Delayed by unexpected British forces at Mons
- Kluck and Bulow decide to attack Paris from the East, not the West
- Unexpected ready mobilisation of Russian forces means troops are sent to the Eastern Front too early
- Moltke commits troops to battle at Nancy (left wing)
- Moltke reduces overall size of the right wing, so it never penetrates France as it was meant to
- Allies hold Ypres, preventing Germans from ever taking the Channel ports and keeping supply lines open to France
- Battle of the Marne, where Germans were forced to withdraw to the Aisne, setting up for a long defensive war – the war of mobility is stopped

Conditions at the Front
- Rain and mud up to the waist for hours, eg. Battle of Passchendaele
- Trench foot from immersing feet in water for too long
- Rats the size of cats spread disease
- Lice caused trench fever
- Poor sanitation from rotting corpses, excreta and urine and rubbish
- Wounds from shell and grenade splinters
- Behaviour disorders from mental anxiety
- Shell shock from the noise of constant bombardment and shelling
- Gas gangrene from bacilli entering wounds and infecting open wounds
- Poor food and rations
- Effects of gas
- Summers were hot and wet, winters extremely cold

Trench Warfare
Artillery bombardments, sometimes for days, to collapse trenches, disorient men and break lines of barbed wire
A whistle is blown and infantry would climb out of the trenches and go “over the top” to reach and theoretically capture enemy lines
Usually enemy machine guns would massacre the oncoming troops without too much effort
Structure of the trenches:
- Front line made of 3 parallel lines (fire, travel and support trenches)
- Trenches built in dog-tooth shape with bays and hiccups to minimise damage from bombardments
- Trenches had a built-up wall of sandbags as a parapet to cover standing men on the firestep
- At the bottom of the trench ran a drainage runnel leading to sumps covered in duckboards

From new technology came new weapons with which to wage war. Also, industrialisation meant that these new, destructive weapons could be mass-produced quickly and cheaply.
- Heavy artillery:
o “Big guns” were heavy to move, but could shell targets 13km away. The noise from barrages could damage men’s brains, make their ears bleed and cause shell shock. They had large, long barrels and were often carried on railway carriages.
o Howitzers were a smaller “big gun”, with a shorter barrel and higher projectory. They travelled 5-8km and were useful for hilly mounds in terrain. They used less explosives.
o Shells used in heavy artillery were: high explosives (collapse trenches), shrapnel shells (timed to explode before impact) and gas shells.
- Infantry weapons:
o Machine guns were utilised early on by the Germans, but the Allied generals did not think it was important. The early models weighed up to 100kg.
o Grenades were preferred by soldiers in hand-to-hand combat situations. British grenades were pineapple shaped, the Germans’ were stick-shaped, called “potato mashers”.
o Trench mortars fired small bombs at very high projectories over very short distances.
o Flamethrowers had psychological advantages
o Light machine guns were created late in the war, giving infantry more firepower, eg. the Lewis gun, which weighed 18kg
o Barbed wire was brought from USA. It hampered soldiers’ advances, making them easy targets and helped bring an end to cavalry charges.
o Gas was a new weapon in WWI. Chlorine gas and phosgene gas suffocated the lungs, while mustard gas simply began to rot the body in a few hours. They were fired either from shells via heavy artillery, or from cylinders that were opened in the right wind. Used first at Ypres in 1915, but advantage was not used well. Although first used by the Germans, the winds on the Western Front helped the Allies more than the Germans. Gas created terror and confusion on both sides of the trenches. Both sides soon stopped using gas because it was easy to counter with gas masks. First, soldiers simply breathed through fabric soaked in their urine, later helmets with breathing masks were introduced and by 1917 every soldier had an effective gas mask, eg the box respirator.
- Tanks were made to restore the initiative to the offense. They were to be bullet-proof steel motorcars, armed with rapid-fire guns and mounted on caterpillar treads. They would be able to break through barbed wire, roll over trenches and deflect machine gun fire. First use was at the Somme in 1916 by the British, however they were used too early. Crews hadn’t completed their training, tactics were ignored and there simply weren’t enough of them. No one, even at Cambrai, knew how to hold the land gained by these new weapons. Only at Amiens in 1918, were tanks used as they were designed to be used, en masse and in cover. It was a success.

Tactics to break the stalemate
Although there were battles and conflicts in other places throughout the war, many of these were still directly related to fighting on the Western Front – they aimed at altering the balance between the two sides and hence breaking the deadlock. Actions elsewhere that didn’t have this primary objective still affected the Western Front by using resources that might otherwise have been available.
Because both sides were so evenly matched in manpower, resources, technology and reserves, a stalemate occurred. The inability of both sides to break through the opposing trench system into open country resulted in a new type of battle – attrition warfare. The aim of any battle was not so much to win territory held by the enemy, but to destroy or wear down the opposing army by inflicting as many casualties as possible.
- For much of the war, the aim was to deceive the enemy as to the real front of any attack, to wear them out and to reduce fighting efficiency by:
o preparations (advancing trenches and saps, dummy assembling trenches, gun emplacements)
o wire cutting to induce the enemy to man their defences and cause fatigue
o gas discharges to cause the enemy to wear gas helmets and inducing fatigue and causing casualties
o artillery barrages on important communications to render reinforcements, relief and supply difficult
o bombardment of rest billets by night
o intermittent smoke discharges and shrapnel fire by day
o extensive raids by night into the enemy’s system of defences
When these old-style tactics failed, many machines and devices, such as poison gas, were invented with the aim of inflicting greater casualties and to break through trenches.

The Generals and Politicians
- General Alfred von Schlieffen
o Chief of General Staff 1891-1905
o Created the Schlieffen Plan
- Col-Gen. Helmuth von Moltke
o Chief of General Staff 1905-1914
o Changed the Schlieffen Plan, so was responsible for German reverse at Marne
o Lost his nerve under pressure, lost control of the right flank
- Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn
o Chief of General Staff 1914-1916
o Used poison gas
o Believed war would be won on the Western Front
o Failed to break through the stalemate
- Gen. Paul von Hindenberg
o Recalled from retirement at the age of 66
o Commanded Eighth Army on Eastern front
o Chief of General Staff from 1916
o Ended war of attrition at Verdun
o Withdrew troops to Hindenberg Line
o Launched March offensive with Ludendorff. Its failure led to retreat and armistice
o Elected President of Germany in 1926
- Gen. Erich von Ludendorff
o Quartermaster-general of Second Army 1914
o Played decisive role in taking Liege
o Hindenberg’s Chief of Staff
o Involved in militarisation of German economy
o Demanded unrestricted submarine warfare
o Counter-attacked immediately after Allied assaults
o Directed censorship and misleading propaganda program on home front
- Crown Prince Rupprecht
o Transferred to Somme-Flanders after August 1914
o Faced the BEF for the rest of the war
o Opposed Ludendorff’s policy of devastation during the withdrawal to Hindenberg Line
o Favoured early peace
- Gen. von Kluck
- Gen. von Bulow
o Both underestimated the strength of their enemy
o Both quickly lost faith in the Schlieffen Plan when they lost sight of each other
- Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
o Chancellor 1909-1917
o Disagreed with Generals over a number of points, incl. use of unrestricted U-boat warfare
o Upset Kaiser because not wholly supporting his bid for peace, upset soldiers because not wholly supporting military efforts
- Gen., then Marshal, Joseph Joffre
o Chief of General Staff from 1911
o Comm.-in-chief 1914-1916
o Believed in superiority of offensive
o Halted Germans at the Marne
o Failed to break through trench warfare deadlock
o Replaced after Battle of Verdun
- Gen. Robert Nivelle
o Commander-in-chief Dec 1916-1917
o Distinguished himself at Marne
o Increased popularity with counter-attacks at Verdun
o Offensive in spring 1917 was a failure, led to mutinies and his replacement
- Gen., later Marshal, Henri Phillipe Petain
o Commander-in-chief May1917-1918
o Conducted skilful defence of Verdun
o Restored morale after mutinies following Nivelle’s spring offensive
o Decided against future large-scale offensives, waiting for USA and more tanks
o “Defence in depth” policy to slow German offensive 1918
o In 1918 proposed to withdraw to the South
o Marshal of France 1918
- Gen., later Marshal, Ferdinand Foch
o Energetic and optimistic leadership in 1918
o Flexible approach when dealing with trench deadlock
o Coordinated Allied armies March 1918
o Given control of strategic direction of Allied military operations April 1918
o General-in-chief of Allied armies in France April 1918
- PM Clemenceau
- Field Marshal Sir John French
o Commander-in-chief of BEF 1914-1915
o Brave, popular with troops
o Often quarrelled with French allied and own subordinates
o Blamed Kitchener for shell shortage 1915
o Kept reserves too far back at Battle of Loos
- Gen., later Field Marshal, Sir Douglas Haig
o Commander-in-chief of BEF 1915-end of war
o Field Marshal Dec 1916
o Criticised for battles of attrition at Somme, Arras, Ypres, Passchendaele
o Believed the entire war was centred on the French Western Front
o Showed tenacity in face of German spring offensives
- PM Lloyd George
o Chancellor of the Exchequer to 1914
o Minister of Munitions 1915-1916
o PM Dec 1916-
o Added force to the political direction of the war
o Often conflicted with generals and didn’t like Haig’s decisions at the Somme without consultation of the government
o Often suggested attacks on other fronts, such as Italy, but to no avail
- Lieutenant-General Sir John Monash
o Colonel at Gallipoli
o General commanding 3rd Australian Division 1916
o Commander of Australian Corps on Western Front from May 1918
o Engineer by profession – he understood how to use new technology
o Known for attention to detail and care for the lives of his men
o Fully briefed individuals on their roles in attack, eg. at Battle of Hamel
o Spearheaded attacks at Amiens and Peronne
o Played a vital role in halting the Ludendorff offensive and breaking through the Hindenberg Line
- PM William Morris Hughes
o Labor Party until 1917 when he left and formed coalition with the Opposition
o PM 1915-1923
o Called for vote on conscription twice (1916, 1917). Both times rejected
o Passed laws to control the home front during the war, extending the powers of the Federal gov.
A summary of the major movements of the Western Front
Battle/ Area
Main attack
Aug 1914
BEF and Belgian forces delayed the advancing Germans
6-9 Sept 1914
Battle of the Marne
French halted German advance. Gap in line forces them to retreat to the Aisne
Oct-Nov 1914
“Race to the Sea”
Outflanking manoeuvre
Feb-Mar 1915
Attempt to force Germans back failed with massive loss of life

Channel ports
Germans tried to take the ports to make Britain vulnerable – failed
April-May 1915
1st Battle of Ypres
Attempt to capture last Allied-held Belgian town failed and a salient is formed. 50000 Brit lives lost. Germans use poison gas
25 Sept-4 Nov 1915
Battle of Loos
Unsuccessful, shows flaws in organization and leadership. Brits use gas
21 Feb-15 Dec 1916
Battle of Verdun
Objective: to “bleed France white”. No advance held. 377000 French, 337000 German casualties
1 Jul-19 Nov 1916
Battle of the Somme
+ French
Aims: to provide relief for French at Verdun, break German line. Brit tanks used, but stuck in mud. 8km gained for 620000 Allied, 450000 German lives
9-12 Apr 1917
Battle of Arras
Aim: to draw German reserves from Nivelle offensive area on the Aisne. Vimy Ridge captured but Hindenberg Line not taken. 11000 dead
11 Apr 1917
Break to second line of trenches on Hindenberg Line, but Brit artillery support is unorganised. Australia lose 2258 out of 3000 men
16-27 Apr 1917
Nivelle Offensive around St Quentin
Aim: mass attack to breakthrough fails. 187000 French losses leads to mutiny. Nivelle replaced by Petain with different strategies
Jun 1917
2nd Battle of Ypres aka. Flanders
Mud meant Haig’s ambitious plans to break through German line could not be carried out
Jun 1917
British + Australian
Mines and planted explosives take a hill, but hesitancy means no advantage is gained
Aug-Nov 1917
3rd Battle of Ypres, aka. Battle of Passchendaele
Haig aims to break out of the Ypres salient, and engage Germany until US troops arrive. 11km cost 245000 lives in bad weather – it is a failure
20 Nov 1917
Mass tank assault shows line can be broken, but reserves not available to capitalise on gains. German storm troop tactics prove equally successful
21 Mar-5Apr 1918
German Spring Offensive, aka. Ludendorff Offensives
Using troops freed by Russia’s withdrawal in the war, storm troops break through 50km before US arrives
Apr-Jul 1918
German Spring Offensives continue
Subsidiary attacks also successful, by May only 60km from Paris, but troops very weary
8 Aug-25 Sept 1918
Allied Counter-offensive
Allied (incl. USA)
Allies gain lost ground, Germans very weak From 26 Sept push further than 20 Mar lines

- Verdun 1916
Falkenhayn was Commander-in-chief of the German army and he intended to “bleed the French white”. Victory on the Eastern Front was impossible and a critical blow was needed in the West. Taking Verdun, at the head of a salient, would have advanced the German line, but that was not the primary objective. Briand, the French PM, had promised to defend the town at all cost, as a matter of national pride and because civilian morale was falling. In the end, over 300000 men were lost on both sides and no strategic gains were made by anyone. Verdun had been held. It appeared to be a French victory, but the spirit of the French army had been broken.
- The Somme 1916
o Haig brought the date of commencement for this planned battle forward to provide a distraction for the French at Verdun. He aimed to launch a massive prelim. bombardment to break through German lines. Infantry and cavalry charges would then rush through to defeat the Germans.
o However, Kitchener’s army of volunteers had inadequate training, and were weighed down by loads of equipment (field phones, wire cutters, shovels + usual equipment). Junior officers were also reckless with their men’s’ lives.
o Also, the Germans had several advantages. They knew about the incoming attack, they had the high ground of the battlefield, they had built underground shelters immune to shell fire, erected impenetrable lines of barbed wire and had hidden observers armed with light machine guns.
o Brit. prelim. bombardments failed to cut through the German barbed wire, and so infantry was easily cut down when ordered “over-the-top”. Several more offensives were launched but all failed and had to be abandoned.
o Only CO Foch managed to break through after delaying his French forces for 2 hours, then taking the Germans by surprise
o Battle lasted over 4 months. 13km gained for 3 million lives on both sides: 420000 Brit, 200000 French, 450000 German casualties.
o Brit generals blamed the heavy losses on inexperienced men, but it was their continual frontal attack tactics that was suicidal. Tanks were used sparsely, with little effect.
o The Somme was seen as a huge British loss, esp. of the generals, led by Haig.
o Gen Joffre was seen as an advocate of useless slaughter and was relieved of command.
- Nivelle Offensives 1917
Allied morale along the Western Front was beginning to concern the generals by the end of 1916. Nivelle’s secret plan was to attack the Noyon salient from the north and south, breaking up trenches with heavy barrages, and he was supported by PM Briand. However the Germans realised what was happening and quickly withdrew to well-fortified positions, destroying all the land and resources as they pulled out. As they withdrew, a political crisis erupted in Paris. In March, PM Briand fell. Worried by the Germans’ actions, Haig urged Nivelle to cancel his attack, but despite a widespread lack of support from his own generals, he pressed on. He threatened to resign, but the new gov., anxious to avoid a damagingly public political row, assured him of its support.
o The Battle of Arras. At Vimy Ridge, the Brits and Canadians made good ground but the Germans brought up reserves and countered to a standstill. At Craonne Plateau, the Germans knew the French were coming and hid. After surviving the initial French barrage, they emerged from their foxholes and set up new positions, massacring their enemy. Tanks were deployed, but they simply presented sure targets for enemy gunners.
Nivelle was replaced by Petain, who was scornful of wasteful slaughter, and preferred to “wait for the Americans and the tanks”.
- Mutinies of 1917
On 19th May, mutinies broke out at a French reserve depot when soldiers refused to entrain for the Front. It soon spread and soldiers refused to fight and abandoned first line trenches. The Germans never knew about the mutiny at the time. If they had, they could simply have walked through the French lines and won the war.
Reasons for mutiny:
o Soldiers began to believe offensives were useless slaughter
o French military discipline was harsh, officers unconcerned for their men
o Conditions were poor, food was bad, leave irregular, medical services inadequate
o Mutineers numbered 30000-40000, and were not led by political radicals
Petain soon reversed the situation, abandoning further large-scale offensives, doubling leave, improving food and ordering new beds and placing a news blackout on the army. Ringleaders were arrested and court-martialled, with many sentenced to death. Most were imprisoned and sent to Caribbean penal colonies. Petain himself visited every division and encouraged his men and listened to complaints.
- Flanders (2nd Battle of Ypres) 1917
A breakthrough in Flanders would threaten German position in Belgium and northern France. Also, a U-boat campaign had convinced the Brit gov. of the need to take Ostend and Zebrugge. Haig believed he could break through German lines in he north along the Ypres salient in Flanders. However, the fields of Flanders were subject to waterlogging; clay soil allowed rain to settle and the drainage systems had been destroyed by constant shelling. The Germans were well fortified and held the high ground of Messines Ridge.
- Passchendaele (3rd Battle of Ypres) 1917
Lloyd George withheld his final approval for any further “push”. He regarded Haig as someone who needlessly wasted lives. He finally agreed to Haig’s plans, but neither his own generals, nor the French fully supported them. The Germans had been warned of the impending attack, so they had abandoned their front line trenches in favour of “flexible defence in depth”. The British attack made little progress against dogged resistance, and rain swamped the battlefield. Haig ignored these factors and pressed the attack. Limited advances were made, bombardments firing over 4 million shells. In its first use on the Western Front, the Germans dropped mustard gas over Brit positions. Fighter planes endlessly strafed Brit lines with machine gun attacks. The town of Passchendaele was completely destroyed, and the battle was nicknamed the “Battle of the Mud”. The British generals had learnt nothing.

English Ext2: majorwork: 3.5

Leshala looked over at the sleeping form of the man she now realised had been her carer for the last few months. A more dedicated protector she could not have asked for. But, while her memory was returning in quick flashes, there were still too many holes in her knowledge. The most important was that she still could not recall who she was running from. She knew it was something serious, something horrible and dangerous, but she simply couldn't get a handle on what she had done. Or not done. She didn't even know if anything was her fault, or if she had just attached herself to Max for no good reason.He had been sleeping for a little over an hour now, and Leshala had watched over him just as he had so often watched over her. Or that's what she thought he would have done. It was so hard to know anything for sure, so hard to really remember the scenes from her life. It all seemed so surreal, like she was in the middle of a movie, or a dream, and would wake up any time now. She munched on another biscuit from Max's bag. Hard to believe that all of this was her life now. Sometimes she thought she remembered other times, fancied that she saw faint pictures in her mind of other people who had loved her in so many different ways. But now there was only Max. She knew there had been others as well, dusty men and women in a travelling...circus? No. Not a performing group of jesters and players, but somehing so similar...She sighed quietly. There was no point trying to force her memories to surface. They came at their own will, in their own order. There was no pattern that she could discern, so she leaned back into the hard wall and tried to let her body rest so her mind could wander freely.So many colours and images, little bits of song and smell, all leading to nothing. She had nothing left, nothing to hope for. All was bleak and dim. Even in the broad daylight of the glaring city, she could only just make out vague silhouettes of the people below her. She felt, more than saw, all of them going about their day-to-day business, so wrapped up in their own little worlds. They were right below her, but she felt like there were seas and continents between her and these oblivious little figures of black and white. Just like the monochromatic colours of the people walking in ordered pairs past her windows, the moans and groans and cluttering of those in the rooms next to hers was muted, like long lost echoes of lives once lived by people who were gone now. Everything around her was but a sad and quiet reflection of what it had once been. Happiness and fun, love and joy, these were all emotions that belonged to a different person, another little girl named Leshala who had lived in a much brighter world. But she, just like all the others, was gone now, and in her place there sat a broken shadow, trying to piece the remaining fragments of her life together. Perhaps she was Leshala. Maybe that happy little girl was still inside her somewhere, and the shadow was just a front, an act put on so that all of the outside world wouldn't suspect that she was still there. So that they wouldn't know that inside of her, there still hid a bubbling little ball of flame and light. They couldn't find out because their jealousy would cause them to put the little flame out, just like all of theirs had been put out so long ago. But the mask had been up for too long now. She wasn't sure that she could take it off anymore. It was so much a part of her that most of the time she too was convinced that it was the real her. Most of the time she also forgot the happy girl hidden underneath all the pretend, all the make-believe. It was only times like this, times when she was alone and at peace that she longed for her old self, the old Leshala that had disappeared even before she met Max and his friends. The Leshala that had fled at the first sign of trouble, when she had first heard the murmurs of change on the wind, when she had first caught the scent of old sweat and musty corners closing in on her.The back of her head touched the wall and her eyes closed, the insides of her eyelids covered in pictures of another life, playing like an old movie reel. Clicking away, Leshala remembered the frames of another life.

English Ext2: majorwork: 4

Whirr... click.
It was time to go to school. That meant skipping. Not fast, hurried leaps from one foot to the other like in a frenzied, lopsided race, but slow hops every second step, barely perceptible except for that little hitch in her stride. Leshala reached out her arm and gently pushed the gate aside. She stopped for a moment, a tiny frown creasing her forehead. Dad was going to have to oil that creaky gate sometime soon. But that baby frown, so out of place on that smooth, untroubled complexion, would not last more than a moment, as she heard her mother walking down the steps behind her. She whirled around, her raven black hair fanning out behind her, reflecting the multicoloured chaos that surrounded her like the thinnest sheet of rarest obsidian. A smile danced across her lips and her face lit up with the power of flaming halogens. Her teeth sparkled and, as any passersby would have told you, she positively glowed."What did I forget this time, mother?" she asked with a giggle forming in her eyes. The young woman facing her leaned her head to one side and smiled indulgently, a pale echo of her daughter's radiance framing her face with sunlight. She had seen more, much more of the world, and it had dimmed her idealism, but even with all the sadness she had witnessed, it had not broken her spirit. Her face, lined now with the palest beginnings of age, and with the only the hint of a shadow under her eyes, was nevertheless the icon of health and happiness. The lines of weariness and experience were far outnumbered by those other creases of mirth and laughter which had permanently etched themselves on her face. She laughed, a rich, mellow mixture of ringing bells and deeper echoes, and her chestnut locks swung about her shoulders. She had only one daughter, but the number didn't matter because it was all she needed. Leshala was her world and it was a joyous world. Before answering her daughter's question, she breathed in, deeply inhaling all the sweet scents of a bright summer's morning. She lowered her head and stared into the overflowing orbs of her daughter's eyes. "I believe you managed to forget this." She thrust out her hand from behind her back, still clutching the brown paper bag that contained Leshala's school lunch. A mock look of chastisement crossed the girl's face and her arm reached out for the bag in slow motion. Just as her fingertips brushed the corner of the perfectly creased paper, she caught a whiff of rusting chains and dirty clothes. Mother and daughter turned as one, and Leshala, the Leshala remembering and watching from a dank little room in a towering black city, realised that even her memories were clouded and tainted by what had happened. She realised, with shock and a broken heart, that even the happy little girl she used to be would never be clean and pure ever again. With the dark and sad knowledge that filled her mind with its inevitability, she fled, leaving the white house and the white picket fence and the mother and father and daughter she barely knew anymore. But she could not escape the oncoming pictures.
Mufti day at school. Leshala wore her new top and new jeans and looked like one of those designer models straight out of a magazine. All the girls wished they could hate her, but they couldn't. No one could hate Leshala. No one could even imagine doing anything bad to her, hurting her.
Waking up with the bright morning sun shining in her eyes. She groans, smiling all the while, and looks around her. The smile dissipates and her eyes narrow in confusion. Where are the white sheets and the familiar pink walls of home? What was that musty smell and why was the ceiling so close to her head? She swallows quickly, dryly, her mouth still believing she is asleep and not willing to cope with this bombardment of new activity. Her breathing becomes more shallow, and her body is completely still. Just as she has decided to jump out of the tiny bed and run for the nearest door (its shut at the other end of the room), she hears other noises. The soft breathing of a peaceful dream. The rustling of other sheets opposite her as someone else awakes. The sun rises fully now and the shadows in the room are banished to some other world. Leshala giggles in relief and pushes her head back into her pillow as she realises there is nothing wrong. Her first ever night away from home and she sends herself into an unnecessary panic. She rolls over and lies facing the opposite bed, just as her best friend opens her eyes with a shake. She murmurs then turns to face Leshala. "I hate sleeping in camp beds." They share a smile.
A perfectly shaped seashell. All orange and cream and ivory white, Dad says if I can find more he'll make them into a shell necklace for me. I think I'll run back down to where the water is and start searching.
A sharp piece of glass, sticking out of my arm at a right angle. More like a wrong angle. Probably should pull it out and clean it before it gets infected or something, what with all this sand and dirt blowing around.
Mum playing the piano. My favourite song and dad and I sing along. Everyone is smiling but then I look out the window and see... There's a man out there, in a torn beanie and old suit two sizes too big for him. He has green eyes, and they're looking straight at me, like he knows who I am. I can't tear my eyes away, and Dad shakes me, asks me whats wrong. My eyes are huge, and I can't speak, I just point out the window. He is frowning, but he never frowns except at tax time. We look back out the window, and mum goes and pulls the curtains open. My parents look at me, worry etched into their faces. There's nobody there.
Click.Click.Click. Click. Click. Click. Clickclickclickclickclickclickclickclickclickclickclickclick.
No more. Please no more. I don't want to remember anymore. I wish I could just forget everything and end it all. Please.

English Ext2: majorwork: 3

Plip...plip...plip.That sound...Leshala realised that she had been sitting, staring off into the distant vista of a metallic world through the single dirty pane of glass built into the wall. She hadn't noticed, but while she had been desperately trying to recover her memories, the sun had risen on the distant horizon. Its murky yellow now cast an eerie, diluted light on the rest of the world, throwing oddly-coloured shadows and reflecting off every surface. The clouds and the dusty grey smoke of the city threatened to surround and blanket her in a fold of grease and grime. She shook her head, trying to rid herself of the groggy feeling that was still filling her mind with tufts of cotton wool.She still felt tired, the kind of numb, drooping exhaustion that a simple night's sleep could not dispel. Only a long vacation from all responsibilities and worries could begin ease this sort of tiredness.She swung her feet off the edge of the bed, leaving an off-white, crumpled sheet in her wake. Remembering the dripping tap that had roused her from her dreams, she thought to find the bathroom and the cool, soothing water it promised. Just as her feet were about to connect with the scratched tiling, she heard another noise. A noise associated with so much fear and anger, that she surprised even herself and ran silently across the room to hide behind the door. Her eyes unfocused, and she concentrated all of her energy into listening for the trodding footsteps, gauging how long it would be until they reached the door that kept the outside world out. Her hands, fingernails broken and encrusted in dirt, clenched so tightly that they shook. Her whole body was as taut as a tightly strung piece of wire, and the current which was her fear shook her with rolling tremors like being electrically shocked.The footsteps grew louder, nearer, until finally they stopped.Leshala moved her head imperceptibly towards the door, and the breathing that she had tried to keep regulated now grew ragged. She could feel her pulse beating in her temples and she uselessly told herself to be calm and still. Her greatest fear was that the approaching phantom would hear her waiting at the door, and would be prepared for her actions.But it was futile and dangerous to think those sorts of things in this kind of situation. Gritting her teeth, she forced herself to shut her eyes slowly and take a deep and silent breath. She felt, with other, unnamed senses, a calloused hand take hold of the door knob from the outside and she began to shake anew when she felt the vibrations of the knob turning.She swallowed, at once fearing and welcoming the gulping sound as her dry throat tried to obey her wish.She hardly dared to breathe now, as she helplessly watched the widening arc of too-bright, fluorescent light spewing from the gradually opening door.Another breath could be heard, besides her own, deep and quick, a man's hurried breathing. And she was proved right. The shadow that quickly slid past the door was that of a man. A man carrying something.Leshala didn't wait to find out what it was. As soon as the unwelcome stranger had come fully into the room, she swung out her arm and shut the door with a bang. She had meant it to be quiet, but with this release, all of her pent up energy had exploded and she had hit the door with all the strength she could muster.The man gave a yelp and jumped back, leaning flat against the opposite wall. Two greeny-grey eyes peered out of the darkness at her."Leshala?"A quiet whisper in a voice so familiar to her. But who was this man?"Leshala. Its me. Max."Max. The name rang a bell in the chaos that was her thoughts."Max?" she murmured, still uncertain but involuntarily relaxing against the wall."Yes." He stepped out of the shadow of the wall and switched on another dim table lamp beside him. Putting the paper bag he had been carrying on the single table in the room, he turned his back to her. Leshala sighed, letting some of the tension drain out of her body. She stepped gingerly forward, as if testing the water with her feet. "Max. What-?""What are you doing here? Who am I? What happened?" He smiled wryly, looking slightly sinister in the odd shadows cast by the cheap lamps and the newly risen sun."Sit down." He offered her a bottle of water out of the paper bag."You don't remember anything at all?" "Err. No, not really."He looked closely at her, leaning so far forward that she was almost tempted to brush the stray strand of hair back from his heavily lined face. Just as she was beginning to get uncomfortable, the man whose name was Max quickly leaned back and sat on the edge of the bed, facing her. He shrugged."Ah, well. Couldn't expect more, could I?""What do you mean?" Leshala narrowed her eyes and took a quick sip of her water."Well. You really don't remember a thing, do you?" Shaking his head, he picked out another bottle from the bag."Your name is Leshala. Mine is Max. We're stuck here, in hiding. Ring any bells?" He unscrewed the top of his bottle and chugged half of it down in one gulp. "Hiding? Hiding from who...from what?""The outside world," he muttered, quickly glancing at the grimy window and all that lay beyond it. He turned back to her and shrugged again. "Don't worry. It happens everytime you sleep. Give it a few minutes. You'll soon remember everything."

English Ext2: majorwork: 2

Dawn on a dusty road. The sun slowly rising from the ashes of the previous day, here to give sustenance to a band of weary travellers. A convoy of what had once been gaily-coloured caravans, but which were now tattered and patched buckets of metal, creaking and shuddering as they made their dreary way through their dreary world. Only shades of brown remained to show for all the years of travel and endless journey. All the joy and the pain, the excitement of a new place and the grief at leaving what could have possibly become their home. All of these emotions and events, and what was there to show for it? A broken line of broken men, encased in a shield from the world, a shield that was now cracking. Once, the drivers and their families had been full of hope for a new world they would help create. They spoke with passion and conviction for a future they had genuinely believed in. Their numbers had swelled, and their faith was strong. At every passing town, their vision found knew eyes, and their mission found new followers. People flocked to them like ants to honey. The miles between counted for nothing when they knew of the prize they would find at the end. There was a fascination that no one was immune to, and, all-unknowing, these men and women preyed on this for their own, selfless gain. Their innocence, their happiness and their fervour all combined to create an image of a group of people untouched by the ways of the real world. The cynical, new-age populace lined up to partake in this ignorance. And so, this nameless troupe of evangelistic believers had wound their way through the harsh countryside, never wanting for food, or water, or shelter. Anyone they met was more than happy to give them the clothes off their back or the water in their tanks. It was not charity they lived off, and yet, they weren’t exactly conning these people out of their possessions. They simply believed so faithfully in their cause, that they could not see a different way. There was no other life, no alternate way of living. They couldn’t understand the heartbreak, the raw emotional anguish of what everyone else called life. Until now. Now, they truly saw through the multicoloured lenses they had forced over their eyeballs for so long. Their way was broken. Nonexistent. Nothing.It had begun when they had mistakenly ventured too close to the city on one of their journeys. The sun had shone at a different angle, and their feet had led them too close to the din and chaos hidden behind the obscurity of smoke. The smoke of a thousand fires, a thousand passions and a thousand voices raised in a silent cry for help. They had forgotten the pact made all those years ago, a pact that said that those in the cities were beyond their help, beyond even seeing their visions. All of this had been thrown to the wind in a moment of unthinking, and as the sun ascended and cleared their vision, they saw the terrible truth. Their eyes were forced open and they witnessed the true horror and despair of the world they had tried to escape. There, in the ashes of what had once been ironically called the "New Utopia" by some melodramatic news reporter, lay the hordes of the wraithlike shadows called "people". Among the paper-thin silvery walls of the city the travellers could see the hundreds of thousands of little figures in pointed suits and grey toupees rushing around in neat rows, as though they were on some sort of conveyor belt. They saw the flashing lights and stop signs that surrounded the hardworking ants on their daily routine. They heard, even though they were too small to see with the naked eye from this distance, all the tinny beeps and whirrs of all the electronic gadgetry that each and every individual of the "New Utopia" simply could not live without. They were so connected, via cables and satellites, that they did not know true individuality. They had not a single original thought within their own minds. And it was thus that the troupe’s vision lay broken. How could they possibly survive outside this interwoven mesh of being? Their way was impossible - worse, it had never been possible. It was a mirage that they had created to explain away the thoughts they sometimes had in their heads. What were thoughts? They couldn’t get you job security or a partner to live with and share income with. A thought nowadays was a useless spark of electricity caught in the synapses of the brain. It couldn’t put food on the table or a roof over your head. There was simply no time for thoughts now. Everyone was busy doing...something. Anything to keep the world going. Who could possibly compete with that kind of mindset? The wanderers realised that they could never do this, so they had hung their collective head and turned tail, fleeing back to the unforgiving desert that welcomed them with open arms. Here, they could at least try to forget all that they had seen. Or so they thought. Slowly, one by one, their numbers had lessened. With every passing town, they lost another, and another, until only the original, the most faithful remained. But even they knew they had reached the end. Their cause was as much dust as that which covered the never-ending landscape that stretched before them. Their futility was as tangible as the red rust that encrusted their giant mobile homes. The flocks of people that had once gathered around to hear them tell their amazing stories of hope and joy, now sat on their porches and watched with dark eyes as the caravans slowly inched their way past them. Eyes once brilliant with the sparkle of prophecy and expectation were now shielded and dim, clouded by disbelief and cynicism. The spark that was the last hope of salvation had been put out with unnecessary buckets of icy cold truth.It was on this journey of public humiliation and admission of defeat that the wandering hopeless had found a lost little girl, abandoned on the roadside. Eyes a deep blue and skin a milky white, she was so at odds with her surrounds that she immediately caught their attention. They had not lost so much of their old beliefs that they even considered leaving her to perish in the heat and dry, so they pulled over and hauled her in. She was unconscious when they found her, scratched and bruised and with barely a drop of liquid in her poor, broken body. They cared for her, wrapped her in their own clothes and fed her with their own food, giving her a bunk in a caravan and a place of her own. They watched her, knowing that although the physical wounds were reasonably bad on their own, the true damage was entirely emotional. By the time she awoke to the world, she had become an accepted part of the caravan. She, just like them, was an unmade being. She had suffered and lost all that she believed in, and they sympathised with her. She had earned her right to be part of the wandering troupe, eyes just as sad as the next man, back bent as low as the next woman.Little Leshala, who was not as little as they all believed, was given into the care of one Maximillian, or just "Max". He, like all of them, was a shattered man. Once one of the most vocal of the troupe, it was generally agreed that he had become the most desolate. It was said that to stare into his pitch black eyes was like staring into the vacuum of space. A person could lose themselves in those depthless orbs. He said nothing when given the responsibility of caring for the girl. He swept back his jet-black hair and shrugged, turning to trudge off in some random, futile direction. But he did what he was asked, no one could deny that. It was just that he didn't do anything besides what he was asked. When Leshala awoke, he fed her, told her what was what then left her alone again. All alone, to stare at the sunset, or to run away, if she wished. More likely, Leshala would take to doing what had become her habit. She would climb up the ladder on the side of the caravan and lie flat on the top, face to the murky blue heavens that was reflected in her eyes. She would take up a bagful of rocks as well. Little pebbles, almost small enough to be grains of sand, carried in a little brown hessian bag that never left her waist. She would take the bag and undo the knot at the top, and, still staring at the clouds far above her, she would throw the pebbles. One at a time, from the bag she rested on her chest. The others barely took any notice of her, but it soon became a custom for her to lie up there for hours on end, not talking, eating or drinking, just listening to the quiet "plip", "plok" of the rocks as they hit the dusty ground behind the moving caravan. An incessant rain of pebbles and rocks that became soothing, once you got used to it. "Plip...plok...pok...pik"

English Ext2: majorwork: 1

Leshala slowly peeled her eyes open. They felt pasted shut, as if she had not slept long enough to wake again. Or maybe as if she had slept too long...She blinked to try and clear the gummy feeling in her eyelids. It was dark. So dark, but this was how it always was, wasn't it? Finally obeying her, her eyelids flew open and the deep blue retreated in the face of the black of her pupils. She saw nothing, and there was only oblivion reflected in the vacuum of her eyes. Oblivion and emptiness in a neverending corridor of unknowing incomprehension. But there was another sound here, besides the ringing silence of nothingness. She heard the slow drip of an untightened tap in a nearby room. The echoes rang clear in her mind, the only real thing here in this place she knew inside and out, but could not remember at all. Oblivion was replaced by chaos and confusion and Leshala looked around her, eyes flicking left and right. It was not so dark after all, she thought, not here in this place of musty shadows and cardboard boxes piled high atop each other. There was a dim lamp in a corner of the small, whitewashed room. The warmth suggested by this last bastion of the light, the stunted guard of reality watching over her, brought her back to herself. Back to the broken being lying on a thin sheet covering an equally broken bedstead.She swallowed, trying to tell her body to wake up. Waiting for it to respond, her other senses slowly crept back to unwillingly join their master. She smelt an odour, something that reminded her of another place, another time, people long gone from her life. People who would never have even heard of the kind of place she was trapped in now. She sighed, long and heavy. Something had happened... something big, something bad, something that had altered the way she viewed life forever. If only she could remember.

English Ext1: Foucault: fact sheet

Foucault (1926-1984) – key theories and context
Foucault's thought explored the shifting patterns of power within a society and the ways in which power relates to the self. He investigated the changing rules governing the kind of claims that could be taken seriously as true or false at different times in history. He also studied how everyday practices enabled people to define their identities and systematize knowledge; events may be understood as being produced by nature, by human effort, or by God. Foucault argued that each way of understanding things had its advantages and its dangers. Foucault’s context:
Born in Poitiers, France and grew up in Vichy France under German occupation. After the war, he studied philosophy and psychology at École Normale Supérieure, a prestigious French academy. Although suffering from acute depression, he excelled.
Like many of his colleagues, he joined the powerful French Communist Party from 1950-53, but never actively participated in his cell – he was disturbed by Stalin’s policies.
His first book was published in 1954, but he would later disavow it. After teaching briefly, he traveled to Sweden and Germany until 1960. Completing his doctorate, he met Daniel Defert, with whom he lived in a non-monogamous partnership for the rest of his life. His thesis was published in 1961 as Madness and Civilisation.
He followed Defert to Tunis and published another book, The Order of Things, in 1966, which brought him widespread fame. By now Foucault was militantly anti-communist, and tired of being labelled a 'structuralist'.
The two returned to France in 1968, just as the student revolts broke out, and Foucault was deeply affected by the unrest in schools and in the general working public. That year, he helped form the Prison Information Group to provide a way for prisoners to voice their concerns.
In 1969 he published The Archaeology of Knowledge, a book discussing discourse and its role in creating history.
In 1970 Foucault was elected to France's most prestigious academic body, the Collège de France as Professor of the History of Systems of Thought. His political involvement now increased, Defert having joined the ultra-Maoist Gauche Proletarienne. This fed into a marked politicisation of Foucault's work, with a book, Discipline and Punishment published in 1975 about the prison system and disciplinary methods.
In the late 1970s political activism in France tailed off, with the disillusionment of most Maoists, several of whom underwent a complete reversal in ideology, becoming the New Philosophers, often citing Foucault as their major influence.
Foucault began to spend more time in the US, especially at UC Berkeley. Foucault found a community within the gay culture in San Francisco, although he would not have identified as gay. Foucault died of AIDS-related complications in Paris in 1984. Three volumes of The History of Sexuality were published the year he died.
Key theories:
Power/Knowledge/Truth: Foucault argues that there are complex links between knowledge, truth and power. For Foucault, power is not something that is owned but which is exercised. “Domination” is not of one person over another, but a shared belief that determines what is “wrong” and “right”. Foucault claims belief systems gain momentum (and hence power) as more people come to accept the particular views associated with that belief system as common knowledge.
Biopolitics/Biopower: ‘For millennia, man remained what he was for Aristotle: a living animal with the additional capacity for a political existence; modern man is an animal whose politics places his existence as a living being in question.’
Eventalisation: Making visible a singularity at places where there is a temptation to invoke a historical constant, an immediate anthropological trait or an obviousness that imposes itself uniformly on all. It means uncovering the procedure of causal multiplication: analysing an event according to the multiple processes that constitute it, revealing the anonymous space or epistème (body of ideas that determine “knowledge” at a particular time) forming the context of an event.
Role of Discourse (language): Objects of study and concepts, rather than creating groups, are themselves a product of discourse, and therefore, cannot define the groupings. Practices, rather than determining discourse, are determined by it.

English: BNW: notes

Brave New World and Blade Runner notes
Science Fiction:
Literary fantasy involving the imagined impact of science on society. Science fiction is a genre of text and can be expressed in written texts, or visual (eg. films, comics). It often combines other themes, such as adventure, romance and horror, but its main emphasis is the role of science and especially technology on society. Because it tries to predict and extrapolate the effects, science fiction often takes place in the future, or in alternate universes which are similar to our own, but different in that technology has already had a different effect on those universes.
The novel Brave New World and the film Blade Runner both exemplify the genre in that they contain all of the different aspects which make up science-fiction. They take place in the future, a future dominated by technology (the Hatcheries in BNW and the robots in BR). This domination is seen by the responder as dangerous and strange but the texts are constructed in such a way that they seem totally plausible. Both texts have a “hero” (the Savage and Deckard) and these heroes stand out because they do not fit the mould and the responder can empathise more fully with them than any other character. They seem to think more like we would if put in the same situation. Both texts contain romance, and action and try to predict a future for our own world and the positive and negative effects that technology will have. However they are not fairytales. In trying to sound plausible, they deal with gritty realism – real violence and fear and real dramatic emotion. This is the core of science fiction – it is meant to be as plausible as possible, and both of these texts contain enough emotion and responses of characters that they exemplify the genre.

Plot Summary:
The novel opens in the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, in the years A.F., or After Ford. Ford is the God-surrogate. The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning is leading a tour group of young students around a lab. He explains the scientific process by which human beings are fertilized and custom-made, and shows them the Social Predestination room, where workers create the social castes. They pass onto the conditioning rooms, where they reinforce the caste divisions by sleep-teaching.
There are some short interludes between Mustapha Mond, Resident Controller of Europe, and the students; Lenina and her friend Fanny; and Bernard Marx and Henry Foster.
Lenina confirms with Bernard that she would like to go on a trip with him to The Savage Reservation. Following her departure, there is more bitterness on the part of Bernard concerning his own inferiority.
Lenina and Henry eat dinner, go on a soma-holiday, and see a concert of synthetic music. Later, they have sex. The next day is Bernard Marx's Solidarity Service Day. A group of men and women sing and take soma together, and it eventually turns into an "orgy-porgy".
Lenina and Bernard go on a date. He tries to show her the ocean, and to express some of his subversive views to her, but she cries. She convinces him to take soma, and they go back to his rooms and have sex. The next day, when Lenina asks him if he had fun, Bernard is pained at the way she seems to degrade herself.
He and Lenina go to The Savage Reservation. Lenina shudders at the unclean conditions. They meet John, The Savage. He tells his story to Bernard, and it turns out that he is the illegitimate son of the Director and Linda, a woman who disappeared twenty-five years ago. John tells Bernard his life story. He feels desperately unhappy and alone. Bernard identifies with John and invites him to return to London with them.
Bernard triumphantly presents Linda and John, the Director's lost woman and illegitimate son. The Director is laughed out of office. Bernard is the big man on campus.
Lenina is interested in The Savage, and so she takes him out, and much to her chagrin, they do not have sex.
The Savage refuses to appear at an assembly. This shatters Bernard's reputation. Lenina is absent-minded, thinking about the Savage. He tells her he loves her and she undresses. Disgusted by the sexual degradation of the society, he violently rejects her.
The Savage is in the Hospital for the Dying to visit his mother. He hears the low-caste workers and several children talking badly about her and has a violent reaction. Suddenly, Linda wakes, recognizes him, and dies. He attempts to destroy a large supply of soma, causing a riot, and the police take him away, along with Bernard and Helmholtz.
The three meet with Mustapha Mond. Mustapha Mond and the Savage speak of religion. Mond says that there is a choice between machinery, scientific medicine, and universal happiness-- or God.
The Savage flees, planning to become independent. He repents by whipping himself. One day a photographer makes a popular film about The Savage. The Savage becomes a celebrity. There is a huge riot which turns into an orgy. The next morning, reporters find that the Savage has hung himself.

The “Civilised” World:
Introduced by the cold, squat grey building of the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, the world of the “civilised” people is full of technology and people. People that were purposely engineered to be the same as each other, to think and feel the same as each other and to never have an original thought. They believe they lived in a perfect world, and it really seems like they did. The people were also well accustomed to the technology that surrounded them – helicopters and “feely” cinemas. Each group of workers is separated into clearly defined castes and are never to intermingle. One of the most striking things about the “civilised” world is their dependence on drugs like “soma” and their promiscuity. They have been taught since before they were born by way of sleep teaching and strictly controlled incubation environments, that what is right is right and what is wrong is wrong. It is wrong to ever be alone, wrong to ever think of anything that has not been taught. Mothers, fathers and families do not exist and are considered horrible and disgusting. These “civilised” people are never sad because if they ever are they simply take more drugs. They don’t need to have children, but if they biologically do, they take a different set of drugs. They are taught when they are young to play games with expensive equipment, indulge in erotic play, and even things like whether they like flowers or not. They use everything only once, and never aspire to anything except to do what they have been taught to do. They are totally controlled by the corporate state running the world, but although it seems like they have no free will, the choices they make are entirely their own, even though they have been taught what to do since birth. They are no “ordered” to do anything they dislike. Everyone is totally and completely happy and content.

The “Reservation” World:
The world of the Savage on the Reservation is much more natural. Natural rock formations, surrounded by trees and animals, the Savage and his society are totally at odds with the “civilised” world. Here, they have mothers and fathers, families and a close-knit tribe. They also have religion and all that that brings – chastity and striving to be better for God. They have no technology, running water or any of the “luxuries” found in the “civilised” world, and seem to be completely uninterested in the goings-on of the world outside their Reservation. They live off the land, reusing clothes and finding food for themselves. They are what is left of the world – the world that has not been conditioned. They are illiterate and have the same values of modern society today, without the curiosity. They are a tribal community and their taboos are much the same as today’s cultures. No conditioning means that babies are still being born and taught the old-fashioned way by their elders.

English: Supp'y texts: LOTR ad

Title and Details:
Powerhouse Museum The Lord Of The Rings Exhibition information pamphlet 2004-2005
Type of text:
Advertising pamphlet
Context and Purpose of text:
Many of the props, costumes and original artworks from the popular and successful trio of movies, The Lord of the Rings, are on display at the Powerhouse Museum in an exhibition travelling the world. The pamphlet gives information to advertise this exhibition and encourage people to come.

What ideas of the imaginative journey are conveyed to the responder?
The main idea is that anyone can go on this imaginative journey to Middle Earth. This is done by physically surrounding yourself with the artefacts of that place, only to be found at the exhibition. The responder can not only go behind the scenes of an award-winning movie and see how it was made, but they can also experience Middle Earth itself.

How are these ideas conveyed to the responder?
The pamphlet is covered in pictures from the movie, as well as pictures of the costumes on display at the exhibition. Large, attention-grabbing fonts, and a brown and black colour scheme (to tie in with the fantasy theme) also help to draw the responder’s attention and show them that this is the world they are being invited to join. Words such as “fantastic” and “once-in-a-lifetime opportunity” also reinforce this. Also included is a map to the museum and times, costs and parking.

Links to poetry of Coleridge and Stimulus Booklet text:
Link to Kubla Khan in the themes of war and fantastic emotions and the battle between good and evil in an ancient setting. Also the desire to be part of something so amazing and successful as the LOTR movies, is echoed in Coleridge’s desire to create something as long lasting as Kubla’s work. Link to The Town Where Time Stands Still in that the advertisement encourages the responder to come to the exhibit and be moved by the experience, that it will have such an amazing effect in all its splendour. Going to the exhibit, the people expect to the moved.

English: Supp'y texts: Alice

Title and Details:
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865)
Type of text:
Childrens’ novel
Context and Purpose of text:
Written by Carroll as a fantastic escape, not only for children, but for all who had once been children to remember the simple dreams of that time.

What ideas of the imaginative journey are conveyed to the responder?
Journeys do not have to be “real” to teach a lesson, to feel pain or to enjoy. Journeys of the mind do not often make sense as it would in the real world. Journeys can be circular.

How are these ideas conveyed to the responder?
Many of the incidents and the characters in the novel are ridiculous and impossible, eg. talking rabbits, the mad tea party and shrinking and enlarging. But they all have metaphorical meaning and Alice leans many lessons during her journey. At the end, she returns to the “real world” and is told it was all a dream.

Links to poetry of Coleridge and Stimulus Booklet text:
Link to This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison in that Alice is bored and sick of sitting on the bank, so she journeys into her own imagination, a world much richer than that which surrounds her. Although at first she is bewildered and scared of this new world, by the end, she is comfortable and can appreciate every nuance of the world in her mind. She awakes and is no longer bored, but enriched by her imagined experiences. Link to The Ivory Trail because of the fantastic journey to another place, or Journey to the Interior because it too is a journey to the world inside the author’s mind and the strange things to be found there.

English: Supp'y texts: Time machine

Title and Details:
The Time Machine by H.G. Wells (1895)
Type of text:
Novel (Science fiction)
Context and Purpose of text:
Written in England by Wells after becoming a science teacher. Gulliver’s Travels had been recently released and Wells wanted to show people that the advancement of mankind must be closely watched, otherwise man will destroy himself utterly.

What ideas of the imaginative journey are conveyed to the responder?
The reader joins the Time Traveller trying to convince his friends that he has made a time machine and has been travelling to the future in it. In this novel, the author brings up the idea that journeys can be physical, mental (the traveller’s friends). They can be painful and they teach the traveller much about his own society and how to change it. The journey does not have to be through space alone, but through time itself. At the end, Wells addresses the idea that many journeys do not end. The reader does not know what happens to the Time Traveller, whether he went to the past or future, or even whether he lived or died.

How are these ideas conveyed to the responder?
The narrative structure of the novel flicks between the present (where the traveller is telling his friends what is happening), and the time of the traveller’s journeying. This is in the future, but it is also in his past. Most of the story is told verbally by the traveller, in quotation marks and in the first person, but the rest (in real time), is told in the first person by the traveller’s closest friend who is never named, thus drawing the reader into the story and encouraging them to use their own imaginations to see what the traveller is telling them.

Links to poetry of Coleridge and Stimulus Booklet text:
Link to The Rime Of The Ancient Mariner in that it tells a tale of a man who has been on a fantastic journey and learned much about the way the world works, and has returned to teach another the lessons he has learned. Link to Journeys over Land and Sea in that it tells a fantastic, imagined tale of exploration and discovery, learning about the world not in physical terms, but in terms of how it will turn out in the future.

English: Supp'y texts: Clancy

Title and Details:
Clancy of The Overflow from “The Man From Snowy River and Other Verses” by A.B. Paterson (1895)
Type of text:
Poem (ballad)
Context and Purpose of text:
Australian bush ballad written at the height of popular ballads in Australia. It tells a story, simple and easy to recognise with.

What ideas of the imaginative journey are conveyed to the responder?
The persona sits in his office and thinks of his old friend Clancy, imagining what he is doing in the bush and contrasting his hurried city life with the simple drover’s life he thinks Clancy is living. The reader is invited to imagine both the persona’s life and join the persona in his imagining of Clancy’s life. The idea is that through imagining, the persona can see a better world, a more ideal life. However these dreams often do not come true.

How are these ideas conveyed to the responder?
Clancy’s world is the ideal one – “pleasures”, “vision splendid”, “wondrous glory” and colloquialisms such as “gone a-drovin” and a slow pace created by long vowels “murmur of the breezes”. The persona’s is not - “dingy”, “stingy”, “foetid air” and hard consonants and short vowels quickens pace and repetition of “hurry”, also alliteration in “gutter children fighting”. However changing places and making real the fantasy is impossible, laughable “But I doubt he’d suit the office”.

Links to poetry of Coleridge and Stimulus Booklet text:
Link to Frost at Midnight in that he contrasts a life in the city with life lived closer to nature. Link to The Road Not Taken in that he thinks of two different lives that stemmed from one meeting. He thinks that they could have switched places, but he has chosen his path now and there is no longer any changing it.

Chemistry: Acidic: 4

4. Because of the prevalence and importance of acids, they have been used and studied for hundreds of years. Over time, the definitions of acid and base have been refined

Outline the historical development of ideas about acids including those of:
- Lavoisier
- Davy
- Arrhenius
- Lavoisier: In the 1780s, the French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, found that non-metal oxides reacted with water forming acidic solutions. He concluded that an acid must contain oxygen.
- Davy: In 1815, the English chemist, Humphry Davy, observed that all known acids contained hydrogen that could be replaced by reaction with a metal. He also noted that compounds of metal with oxygen were bases. However, he knew that some compounds containing hydrogen were not acids. He believed that it was the way that a substance was structured that somehow determined its acidity.
(Lavoisier and Davy's definitions were based on observable properties)
- Arrhenius: In 1884, the Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, put forward definitions based on concepts about particles too small to be directly observed. Arrhenius proposed that: an acid produced hydrogen ions H+ when dissolved in water. A base produced hydroxide ions OH- when dissolved in water.
Arrhenius’ model for acids and bases:
- pure acids consist of neutral molecules that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water
- bases are substances that dissociate in water to provide cations and OH- ions
- when an acid or base dissociates, the ions produced are mobile in solution, which is therefore a good conductor
- the behaviour of acids is due to the H+ ion
- the behaviour of bases is due to the OH- ion

Outline the Brönsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
This theory was independently outlines in 1923 by the Danish chemist, Johannes Bronsted, and the British chemist, Thomas Lowry, which overcame the limitations of the Arrhenius definition. It proposed that an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor. The production of hydrogen ions is due to the properties of the acid relative to those of the solvent. If a substance has a greater tendency to give up protons than the solvent, then the substance will be an acid. This theory brought about the idea of conjugates (bases and acids).

Describe the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base and a base and its conjugate acid
When an acid donates a proton, it forms its conjugate base. HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+ acid conjugate base
When a base accepts a proton, it forms its conjugate acid. HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+ base conjugate acid

Identify a range of salts which can form acidic, basic or neutral solutions and explain their acidic, neutral or basic nature
Strong acid + strong base = neutral salt eg. NaCl
Strong acid + weak base = acidic salt, eg. NH4Cl
Weak acid + strong base = basic salt eg. CH3COONa
Weak acid + weak base = neutral salt, eg. NH4NO2
Salt ions formed from weak acids or weak bases can react with water to reform the acid or base. In undergoing these hydrolysis reactions, they release OH- or H+, which can produce basic or acidic salt solutions.
Ammonium salt solutions are acidic, because NH4+ + H2O NH3 + H3O+
Sodium chloride solution is neutral, because Na+ and Cl- (ions from the strong base NaOH and the strong acid HCl) do not undergo hydrolysis.
Sodium carbonate solution is basic, because the carbonate ion from the weak acid carbonic acid can hydrolyse. CO32- + H2O HCO3- + OH-
Similarly, potassium acetate solution is basic. CH3COO- + H2O CH3COOH + OH-
If a salt is made up of two ions that hydrolyse to the same extent, the salt solution could be close to neutral, e.g. ammonium acetate NH4CH3COO. NH4+ + H2O NH3 + H3O+ CH3COO- + H2O CH3COOH + OH-The resulting reaction, H3O+ + OH- 2H2O, results in a neutral solution.

Identify conjugate acid/base pairs
Common acids and bases and their conjugates
Conjugate Base
Conjugate Acid

Strong acids produce very weak conjugate bases
Strong bases produce very weak conjugate acids
Moderately weak acids produce moderately weak bases (eg. CH3COOH to CH3COO-)

Identify amphiprotic substances and construct equations to describe their behaviour in acidic and basic solutions
A molecule or ion that can behave as a proton donor or acceptor is called amphiprotic. Amphiprotic means protons on both sides. An amphiprotic molecule or ion can donate or accept a proton. Whether an amphiprotic species behaves as an acid or a base depends on the nature of the other species it is reacting with; that is, whether or not the other species is a stronger acid or base than the amphiprotic species itself.
Water is an amphiprotic molecule:
Water as an acid: H2O H+ + OH- Water as a base: H+ + H2O H3O+
The hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) ion is an amphiprotic ion: As an acid HCO3- H+ + CO32- As a base H+ + HCO3- H2CO3
Zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), HSO3-, H2PO4- and HPO42- are also amphiprotic.

Identify neutralisation as a proton transfer reaction which is exothermic
Neutralisation is the reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water. The solutions reacted to demonstrate neutralisation are usually of a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid, and a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide. acid + base salt + water
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
H+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- Na+ + Cl- + H2O
The net ionic equation for reaction is: H+ + OH- H2O
The net ionic equation shows that neutralisation is a proton transfer reaction. A proton from the acid transfers to the hydoxide ion of the base.
All neutralisations are exothermic, because the reaction creates covalent bonds. When the heat of neutralisation is measured for a range of strong acids and strong bases, the amount of heat released is always about 57 kJ per mole of water formed. This is the heat change for the following reaction: H+ + OH- H2O DH = - 57 kJ mol-1

Describe the correct technique for conducting titrations and preparation of standard solutions
- Rinse entire burette with a portion of the solution to be dispensed
- Fill burette
- Read the starting volume off the burette
- Rinse pipette with the other solution
- Pipette a fixed volume of the other solution into a conical flask
- Add a few drops of a suitable indicator to the liquid in the conical flask. Choose an indicator that changes colour at about the pH f the salt solution formed at the equivalence point
- Add the solution from the burette gradually while swirling the contents of the flask until the desired indicator colour change occurs.
- Repeat at least twice
Preparation of a standard solution
- Calculate the moles of the substance required
- Calculate the required mass
- Accurately weigh a mass close to the required mass in a beaker
- Dissolve all of the measured mass in water, transfer to volumetric flask, wash inside beaker twice with water and transfer washings to volumetric flask
All of the weighed mass must enter the volumetric flask
- Dilute the solution to the exact volume marked on the flask
- Stopper the flask then invert and rotate to fully mix
- Calculate exact concentration
- Label solution with name, and date

For a chemical to be suitable to prepare as a standard solution, it must:
- be a water soluble solid
- have high purity usually Analytical Reagent (A.R.) grade
- have an accurately known formula
- be stable in air, i.e. it does not lose or gain water or react with oxygen or carbon dioxide in air.
The concentration is usually calculated in mol L-1.
At senior high school level equipment such as burettes, pipettes and volumetric flasks give readings to three significant figures. Calculations are carried out to three significant figures.

Qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system
A buffer controls the level of acidity or basicity in a solution. If an acid or a base is added to a buffer solution, there is hardly any change in pH.
A buffer solution is any solution containing either a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid, eg. hydrogen carbonate ions, HCO3-, and carbonate ions, CO32-.
If an acid is added to the buffer, the hydrogen ions are removed by H+ + HCO3- H2CO3
If a base is added to the buffer, hydroxide ions are removed by OH- + HCO3- H2O + CO32-
The net effect is that the pH of the solution containing buffer changes only slightly, but will eventually the buffer cannot resist a drastic increase in pH.
Hydrogen carbonate ions are important in maintaining the pH of human blood at about 7.4. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood haemoglobin and the activity of cell enzymes depend very strongly on the pH of the body fluids. Slight variations in pH are essential for the stimulation of certain physiological functions. However, pronounced changes (extended acidosis or alkalosis) will lead to serious disturbances of normal body functions and even death.

Gather and process information from secondary sources to trace developments in understanding and describing acid/base reactions
Acid Definition
Base definition
Provides H+ in solution
Provides OH- in solution
- Water solutions only
Acid is a proton donor
Base is a proton acceptor
- Acid must contain hydrogen
- Could classify carbonates, etc
Acid is an electron pair acceptor
Base is an electron pair acceptor
- Electron pair donor
- Broadest definition of all: applicable to organic and bio- chemistry

Choose equipment and perform a first-hand investigation to identify the pH of a range of salt solutions
Choose the most appropriate equipment available to you. If possible, a pH meter or data logger with probe would be most suitable, otherwise select indicator solution or indicator paper to measure the pH of the salt solutions.
To ensure you perform a valid investigation, prepare solutions of salts of equal concentration.

Perform a first-hand investigation and solve problems using titrations and including the preparation of standard solutions, and use available evidence to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the reaction between selected acids and bases
1. Calculate the moles of standard solution which have reacted:
moles of standard solution = (conc. in mol L-1) x volume of known in L (usu. 0.025)
2. Write a balanced equation for the reaction which occurs with the other reactant, ie. the unknown solution.
3. Use this equation to determine how many moles of unknown solution are required for the neutralisation reaction.
4. Calculate the concentration of the unknown solution using:
conc. of unknown = moles required of unknown / volume of unknown used (from burette) (mL)

Perform a first-hand investigation to determine the concentration of a domestic acidic substance using computer-based technologies
Vinegar contains acetic acid which can be titrated against standardised NaOH(aq) using a pH probe attached to a data logger. The data recorded can be used to draw a graph. The endpoint is where the pH changes most rapidly.

Analyse information from secondary sources to assess the use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to minimise damage in accidents or chemical spills
Neutralisation is an exothermic reaction, so excess heat will be produced. This means that neutralisations shouldn’t be performed to clean up chemical spills on a person, but in the case of a tanker spill, it would stop dangerous chemical leakage and runoff, and excess heat wouldn’t really matter. However, the amount of chemicals needed to neutralise another chemical must be accurately calculated, otherwise the acidity/basicity will go too far over the other way.
A substance containing an amphiprotic ion, such as the hydrogen carbonate ion in NaHCO3, is quite suitable for neutralising chemical spills.
If the chemical spill contains an acid, H+ + HCO3- H2O + CO2 If the spill contains a base, HCO3- + OH- CO32- + H2O.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate is used because:
- it is a stable solid which is safely handled and stored
- if too much is used there is less danger than from excess sodium hydroxide
- it is amphiprotic
- it neutralises chemical spills of acids, bases and of unknown acidity/basicity

Chemistry: Acidic: 3

3. Acids occur in many foods, drinks and even within our stomachs

Define acids as proton donors and describe the ionisation of acids in water
An acid is a proton donor. When an acid molecule is in contact with water it can ionise, donating a proton to a water molecule.A hydrogen atom, H, consists of one proton and one electron. A hydrogen ion, H+ , is formed when a H loses its electron, leaving just a proton. A proton and a hydrogen ion are thus the same and can be represented by H+.
When an acid molecule is placed in water, it can ionise, releasing a proton and forming a negative ion. The proton, H+, can attach to a water molecule, H2O,forming what is called a hydrated hydrogen ion or hydronium ion, H3O+.

Sulfuric acid is called a diprotic acid because each molecule can release up to two protons.

Phosphoric acid is called a triprotic acid because each molecule can release up to three protons.

Identify acids including acetic (ethanoic), citric (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic), hydrochloric and sulfuric acid
- Acetic acid (ethanoic acid)occurs naturally in the decomposition of biological material, such as oxidation of wine alcohol, but most acetic acid used by humanity is manufactured industrially.

- Citric acid occurs naturally in fruits but most that is added to food as preservatives is manufactured.

- Hydrochloric acid is naturally secreted in the stomach as part of the digestive juices, but is also industrially produced on a large scale.

- Sulfuric acid is mostly manufactured, but it can also occur naturally. For example, most sulfur dioxide released into the earth’s atmosphere is oxidised and dissolved in water to form the sulfuric acid in acid rain. If the acid rain results from volcanic eruption it could be regarded as natural, but if acid rain results from smelting of sulfide ores, it could be regarded as manufactured.

Describe the use of the pH scale in comparing acids and bases
The pH scale is used to compare the concentration of hydrogen ions in solutions of acids and bases, in terms of log10.
H2O(l) + H2O(l) OH-(aq) +H3O+(aq) or
H2O(l) OH-(aq) +H+(aq)
In acidic solutions, there are more ionised hydrogen ions in the water, and in a basic solution, there are more OH- ions.
Note that:
The [H+] x [OH-] is the same for all aqueous (water) solutions. It does not matter whether the solution is of an acid, a base, a salt or a mixture of these.
[H+] x [OH-] is the ionisation constant for water, Kw = 1.0 x 10-14 at 25oC.
In pure water without any dissolved gas, [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 mol L-1 and so pH =7.
In an acidic solution, [H+] > 10-7 mol L-1 and pH <> 7.

Describe acids and their solutions with the appropriate use of the terms strong, weak, concentrated an dilute
A concentrated solution contains a large amount of solute in a given amount of solution. A 10 mol L-1 solution would be called concentrated.
A dilute solution contains a small amount of solute in a given amount of solution. A 0.01 mol L-1 solution would be called dilute.
A strong acid is one that fully ionises, eg. HCl. (at same conc. a strong acid has more H+ ions than a weak)
A weak acid is one that does not fully ionise in solution, eg. citric acid.

Identify pH as –log10[H+] and explain that a change in pH of 1 means a ten-fold change in [H+]
In a neutral solution at 25°C, the concentration of the hydronium (or hydrogen ions has a value of 1.0 x 10-7 mol L-1, which equals the concentration of the hydroxide ions, that is [H+] = 1.0 x 10-7 mol L-1 = [OH-]. Describing he acidity of a solution using with negative powers can be cumbersome, so a more convenient approach is to use pH to describe acidity levels. PH is defined as the negative of the logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydronium/hydrogen ion concentration, and it is a unitless number. Because it is a log to the base ten, there is a ten-fold change in the number of hydrogen ions every time there is a change of 1 pH.

Compare the relative strengths of equal concentrations of citric, acetic and hydrochloric acid and explain in terms of the degree of ionisation of their molecules
Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, close to 100% ionised in solution (theoretical pH = 1.0)

Citric acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) and acetic acid (ethanoic acid) are weak acids, with typically about 1% ionised (theoretical pH = 2.1)

Acetic should be 2.9 pH

Describe the difference between a strong and a weal acid in terms of an equilibrium between the intact molecule and its ions
A strong acid is one in which the molecules present practically all ionise when placed in water, e.g. hydrochloric acid, HCl.

A weak acid is one where only a small proportion of the molecules ionise, e.g. acetic acid (ethanoic acid), CH3COOH. Here, an equilibrium is created.

If 0.1 M solutions of each are prepared it should be seen that hydrochloric acid has a pH of 1 corresponding to a [H+] = 10-1 = 0.1 M. That is, practically every HCl molecule has ionised, producing a H+.
By contrast a 0.1 M solution of acetic acid will have a pH close to 3 indicating a [H+] close to 10-3 = 0.001 M. Only about 0.001 / 0.1 = 1% of the acetic acid molecules have ionised producing a H+.

Solve problems and perform a first-hand investigation to use pH meters/probes and indicators to distinguish between acidic, basic and neutral chemicals
Using a pH meter or probe is a non-destructive way of testing whether a chemical solution is acidic, basic or neutral. Provided the pH meter electrode or probe is washed well with distilled water between measurements, the solutions tested should be unaffected.
Using indicator solution or indicator paper is a destructive way of testing, as the indicator will contaminate the portion of solution tested.
Before performing the investigation, calibrate the pH meter electrode or data logger probe before use. The electrode or probe should be placed in solutions of known pH before use to test the required acidic, basic and neutral solutions and the meter or data logger adjusted to give appropriate readings.

Plan and perform a first-hand investigation to measure the pH of identical concentrations of strong and weak acids
- Conductivity test: a strong acid will conduct more since there are more ionized molecules
- Indicators: strong acids will be more acidic
- pH probe

Gather and process information from secondary sources to write ionic equations to represent the ionisation of acid
If an acid is a strong acid, the equation will usually be written with an arrow, , from left to right showing that ionisation of the acid molecules is almost complete.
If an acid is a weak acid, the equation will usually be written with the reversible arrows, , that show that significant amounts of reactants (un-ionised molecules) as well as products ( H+ and an acid anion) are present in equilibrium.

Use available evidence to model the molecular nature of acids and simulate the ionization of strong and weak acids

Ionisation of two acids of the same concentration in water.

Gather and process information from secondary sources to explain the use of acids as food additives
A food additive is defined as “any substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result, in it or its by-products becoming directly or indirectly a component of such foods”. Foods are subjected to many environmental conditions, such as temperature changes, oxidation and exposure to microbes, which can change their original composition. Food additives play a key role in maintaining the food qualities and characteristics that consumers demand, keeping food safe, wholesome and appealing from farm to fork.
Food acids, especially vinegar and citric acid, are added to make the flavour of foods "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants, also to provide leavening or control acidity/ alkalinity or to improve or maintain nutritional value.Leavening agents that release acids when heated can react with baking soda to help cakes, biscuits and other goods to rise during baking. Vitamins and minerals are added to many common foods such as milk, flour, cereal and margarine to make up for those likely to be lacking in a person's diet or lost in processing, eg. ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Ascorbic acid, propionic acid and citric acid are used to maintain palatability (taste); citric acid, fumaric acid, phosphoric acid and lactic acid are used to control acidity/alkalinity.
Ascorbic acid is an antioxidation thus is added to food to prevent spoilage by oxidation.

Identify data, gather and process information from secondary sources to identify examples of naturally occurring acids and bases and their chemical composition

Acid/ Base
Chemical composition
Carbonic acid
Limestone caves
Lactic acid
Milk, yogurt, produced by muscles during exercise

Hydrogen carbonate ion
Pancreatic juice
Acetic acid (ethanoic acid)
Citric acid
Citrus fruits

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
Fruits and vegetables

Formic acid (methanoic acid)

Process information from secondary sources to calculate pH of strong acids given appropriate hydrogen ion concentrations
1. Calculate concentration of strong acid/base (c= moles/volume)
2. Write equation showing the number of moles of H+ or OH- formed per mole of acid
3. Multiply this number by the original concentration of the acid/base
4. In bases, determine [H+] by: [H+] = 10-14/[OH-]
5. Calculate pH value: pH = -log[H+]